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ADR – adverse drug reaction

Advanced therapies – there may come a time when tablets, capsules or patches are no longer working so well to control symptoms. Additional options for the treatment of APD include apomorphine (a subcutaneous injection or infusion of a dopamine agonist), levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel (inserted into the stomach by a tube) or deep brain stimulation (fine wires inserted into the brain with surgery)

AE – adverse event

AOR – adjusted odds ratio

Complex PD – complex Parkinson’s disease, also known as advanced Parkinson’s disease

DBS – deep brain stimulation

GI tract – gastrointestinal tract

HES – Hospital Episode Statistics. A database containing details of all admissions, outpatient appointments and A & E attendances at NHS hospitals

HRQoL – health-related quality of life

NHSE – National Health Service England

NJ – nasojejunal

NMSS – non-motor symptom scale

‘Off’ time – periods of the day when the medication is not working well, causing worsening of Parkinsonian symptoms. ‘Wearing-off’ episodes may occur predictably and gradually, or they may emerge suddenly and unexpectedly. ‘Wearing-off’ periods may be improved with appropriate changes in the medication regimen

‘On’ time – periods of the day with adequate control of Parkinson's symptoms

‘On’–‘Off’ fluctuations – the cycle between good control of Parkinson’s and periods of worsening symptoms

OR – odds ratio

PD – Parkinson’s disease

PEG-J – percutaneous endoscopic gastro-jejunostomy

Pts – patients

UDysRS - the Unified Dyskinesia Rating Scale has established metric properties that can measure all aspects of dyskinesia with a comprehensive score2




  1. Duodopa (levodopa/carbidopa intestinal gel) Summary of Product Characteristics. Available at:
  2. Alvarez EF, et al. Presented at the MDS Virtual Congress, 12–16 September 2020:867.



Adverse events should be reported. Reporting forms and information can be found at

Adverse events should also be reported to AbbVie on [email protected] 


UK-DUOD-210081. Date of preparation: May 2021.